# Misc functions

rlist provides miscellaneous functions to assist data manipulation. These functions are mainly designed to alter the structure of an list object.

## list.append, list.prepend

list.append() appends an element to a list and list.prepend() prepends an element to a list.

library(rlist)
list.append(list(a=1, b=1), c=1)

# $a # [1] 1 # #$b
# [1] 1
#
# $c # [1] 1  list.prepend(list(b=1, c=2), a=0)  #$a
# [1] 0
#
# $b # [1] 1 # #$c
# [1] 2


The function also works with vector.

list.append(1:3, 4)

# [1] 1 2 3 4

list.prepend(1:3, 0)

# [1] 0 1 2 3


The names of the vector can be well handled.

list.append(c(a=1,b=2), c=3)

# a b c
# 1 2 3

list.prepend(c(b=2,c=3), a=1)

# a b c
# 1 2 3


## list.reverse

list.reverse() simply reverses a list or vector.

list.reverse(1:10)

#  [1] 10  9  8  7  6  5  4  3  2  1


## list.zip

list.zip() combines multiple lists element-wisely. In other words, the function takes the first element from all parameters, and then the second, and so on.

str(list.zip(a=c(1,2,3), b=c(4,5,6)))

# List of 3
#  $:List of 2 # ..$ a: num 1
#   ..$b: num 4 #$ :List of 2
#   ..$a: num 2 # ..$ b: num 5
#  $:List of 2 # ..$ a: num 3
#   ..$b: num 6  The list elements need not be atomic vectors. They can be any lists. str(list.zip(x=list(1,"x"), y=list("y",2)))  # List of 2 #$ :List of 2
#   ..$x: num 1 # ..$ y: chr "y"
#  $:List of 2 # ..$ x: chr "x"
#   ..$y: num 2  The parameters do not have to be the same type. str(list.zip(x=c(1,2), y=list("x","y")))  # List of 2 #$ :List of 2
#   ..$x: num 1 # ..$ y: chr "x"
#  $:List of 2 # ..$ x: num 2
#   ..$y: chr "y"  ## list.rbind, list.cbind list.rbind() binds atomic vectors by row and list.cbind() by column. scores <- list(score1=c(10,9,10),score2=c(8,9,6),score3=c(9,8,10)) list.rbind(scores)  # [,1] [,2] [,3] # score1 10 9 10 # score2 8 9 6 # score3 9 8 10  list.cbind(scores)  # score1 score2 score3 # [1,] 10 8 9 # [2,] 9 9 8 # [3,] 10 6 10  Note that the two functions finally call rbind() and cbind(), respectively, which result in matrix or data frame. If a list of lists are supplied, then a matrix of list will be created. scores2 <- list(score1=list(10,9,10), score2=list(8,9,6),type=list("a","b","a")) rscores2 <- list.rbind(scores2) rscores2  # [,1] [,2] [,3] # score1 10 9 10 # score2 8 9 6 # type "a" "b" "a"  rscores2 is a matrix of lists rather than atomic values. rscores2[1,1]  #$score1
# [1] 10

rscores2[,1]

# $score1 # [1] 10 # #$score2
# [1] 8
#
# $type # [1] "a"  This is not a common practice and may lead to unexpected mistakes if one is not fully aware of it and take for granted that the extracted value should be an atomic value like a number or string. Therefore, it is not recommended to either list.rbind() or list.cbind() a list of lists. ## list.stack To create a data.frame from a list of lists, use list.stack(). It is particularly useful when we want to transform a non-tabular data to a stage where it actually fits a tabular form. For example, a list of lists with the same single-entry fields can be transformed to a equivalent data frame. nontab <- list(list(type="A",score=10),list(type="B",score=9)) list.stack(nontab)  # type score # 1 A 10 # 2 B 9  For non-tabular data, we can select fields or columns in the data and stack the records together to create a data frame. library(pipeR) list.load("https://renkun-ken.github.io/rlist-tutorial/data/sample.json") %>>% list.select(Name, Age) %>>% list.stack  # Name Age # 1 Ken 24 # 2 James 25 # 3 Penny 24  ## list.flatten list is powerful in its recursive nature. Sometimes, however, we don't need its recursive feature but want to flatten it so that all its child elements are put to the first level. list.flatten() recursively extract all elements at all levels and put them to the first level. data <- list(list(a=1,b=2),list(c=1,d=list(x=1,y=2))) str(data)  # List of 2 #$ :List of 2
#   ..$a: num 1 # ..$ b: num 2
#  $:List of 2 # ..$ c: num 1
#   ..$d:List of 2 # .. ..$ x: num 1
#   .. ..$y: num 2  list.flatten(data)  #$a
# [1] 1
#
# $b # [1] 2 # #$c
# [1] 1
#
# $d.x # [1] 1 # #$d.y
# [1] 2


## list.names

list.names() can be used to set names of list elements by expression.

people <- list.load("https://renkun-ken.github.io/rlist-tutorial/data/sample.json") %>>%
list.select(Name, Age)
str(people)

# List of 3
#  $:List of 2 # ..$ Name: chr "Ken"
#   ..$Age : int 24 #$ :List of 2
#   ..$Name: chr "James" # ..$ Age : int 25
#  $:List of 2 # ..$ Name: chr "Penny"
#   ..$Age : int 24  Note that the elements in people currently do not have names. In some cases, it would be nice to assign appropriate names to those elements so that the distinctive information can be preserved in list transformations. npeople <- people %>>% list.names(Name) str(npeople)  # List of 3 #$ Ken  :List of 2
#   ..$Name: chr "Ken" # ..$ Age : int 24
#  $James:List of 2 # ..$ Name: chr "James"
#   ..$Age : int 25 #$ Penny:List of 2
#   ..$Name: chr "Penny" # ..$ Age : int 24


The names of the list elements can be preserved in various types of data manipulation. For example,

npeople %>>%
list.mapv(Age)

#   Ken James Penny
#    24    25    24


The names of the resulted vector exactly come from the names of the list elements.

## list.sample

Sometimes it is useful to take a sample from a list. If it is a weighted sampling, the weights are in most cases related with individual subjects. list.sample() is a wrapper function of the built-in sample() but provides weight argument as an expression to evaluate for each list element to determine the weight of that element.

The following example shows a simple sampling from integers 1-10 by weight of squares.

set.seed(0)
list.sample(1:10, size = 3, weight = .^2)

# [1]  5 10  8